Nursing Management in Cancer Care

Cancer is not a single disease with a single cause; rather, it is a group of distinct disease with different cause, manifestations, treatments, and prognoses. Because cancer can involve any organ system and treatment approaches have to potential for multisystem effects, cancer nursing practice overlaps numerous nursing specialties. Cancer nursing practice covers all age groups and is carried out in various settings, including acute care institutions, outpatient centers, rehabilitation facilities the home, and long-term care facilities. The scope, responsibilities, and goals of cancer nursing, also called oncology nursing, are as diverse and complex as those of any nursing specialty. Cancer nursing practice addresses the care of patients throughout the cancer trajectory from prevention through end -of-life care. Despite significant advances in the understanding of cancer including cause, prevention, early detection, diagnostic tools, prognostic indicators, treatment, and symptom management, many people still associate cancer with pain and death Nurses need to identify their own perception of cancer and set realistic goals to meet the challenges inherent in caring for patients with cancer. In addition, nurses caring for patients with cancer must be prepared to support patients and families through a wide range of physical, emotional, social, cultural, financial, and spiritual challenges. Epidemiology of cancer In 2011, more than 1.5 million Americans were diagnosed with cancer affecting various locations within the body. Cancer is second only to cardiovascular disease as a cause of death in the United States. Although the number of cancer deaths has decreased, more than 570,000 Americans were expected to die of a malignant process in 2011. The leading causes of cancer death in the United States in order frequency and location are lung, prostate, and colorectal cancer in men and lung breast, and colorectal cancer in women (Siegel, Ward. Brawley, et a1.., 2011). Most cancer occurs in people older than 65 years, Overall, the incidence of cancer is higher in men than in women and higher in industrialized nations. Although the overall rate the cancer deaths has declined, cancer death rates in African American men remain substantially higher than those among Caucasian men and twice those of Hispanic men. Despite progress in screening, diagnosis, and treatment, progress has not benefited all segments of the population equally; cancer death rates for individuals with the least education are more than twice those of the most educated. the elimination of educational and racial disparities could potentially have avoided about 37% of the premature cancer deaths in 2007 among individuals 25 to 64 years of age ( Siegel et a1.., 2011). Disparities in treatment, morbidity, and mortality are related to patient, physician, and system factors that exist. interact, and affect each other within the heath care system and the patient's community 9 Korber, Padula, Grey, et a1.., 2011) Factors include attitude, Knowledge, cultural beliefs, sociaeconomic issues, level of education, insurance coverage, lifestyle choice such as the use of tobacco, misconceptions, communication skils, and other epidemiologic factors.